Cynocephalus volans (= Galeopithecus philippinensis, G. volans), cranium in ventral view. A, fetus, 14 cm from snout to root of tail, with palatal parts of maxillae and palatines removed to expose the nasal cartilages; modified from Parker (1885b: plate 39, fig. 1); B, young, 20 cm from snout to root of tail, with anteriormost part of right premaxilla removed; modified from Parker (1885b: plate 37, fig. 6). Cartilage (puce); ossifying chondrocranium (orange); bone (beige). Parker’s original abbreviations: aln, alinasal; als, alisphenoid; au, auditory capsule; bo, basioccipital; bs, basisphenoid; chl, cochlea; ehy, epihyal; en, external nostrils; eo, exoccipital; epg, external pterygoid; eu, eustachian tube; f, frontal; fm, foramen magnum; fr, fenestra rotunda; fso, fenestra ovalis; glc, glenoid cavity; inf, incisive foramen [added by author]; itb, inferior turbinal; IX, X, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves; j, jugal; jo, Jacobson’s organ; mspg, mesopterygoid; mtb, middle turbinal; mx, maxilla; occ, occipital condyle; op, opisthotic; pa, palatine; pg, pterygoid; ppf, posterior palatine foramen ppx, [medial] palatine process of premaxillary; ps, presphenoid; psc, paraseptal cartilage (recurrent cartilage); px, premaxillary; so, supraoccipital; sq, squamosal; tty, tegmen tympani; v, v”, vomer; V1,2, ophthalmic and maxillary nerves; V3, mandibular nerve; VII, facial nerve; XII, hypoglossal nerve.

  Part of: Wible JR (2022) The history and homology of the os paradoxum or dumb-bell-shaped bone of the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Mammalia, Monotremata). Vertebrate Zoology 72: 143-158.