Simplified ancestral range analysis for tortoises (Testudinidae) based on mitochondrial genomes (15,510 bp; modified from Kehlmaier et al. 2019a). The nodes show only the most likely ancestral ranges coded by colors; the ancestral range for the most basal node could not be resolved. For details, see Kehlmaier et al. (2019a). Note that the ancestral range ‘Africa’ for Testudo concerns regions north of the Sahara.

  Part of: Fritz U, Tolley KA, Vamberger M, Ihlow F (2022) Phylogeny and phylogeography of chelonians from sub-Saharan Africa—A review of current knowledge in tribute to Margaretha D. Hofmeyr. Vertebrate Zoology 72: 951-969.