The multiple out-of-Africa dispersals of testudinid lineages. Numbers at arrows are inferred divergence times (million years) for the mitochondrial genomes of the respective taxa from their African sister lineages (from Kehlmaier et al. 2021a). For the Indotestudo-Malacochersus-Testudo clade it cannot be excluded that Malacochersus results from a secondary reinvasion of Africa (inferred split age of Malacochersus and its non-African sister: 22.5 million years). Here, the divergence time of the last common ancestor of the whole Indotestudo-Malacochersus-Testudo clade and its African sister branch is shown.

  Part of: Fritz U, Tolley KA, Vamberger M, Ihlow F (2022) Phylogeny and phylogeography of chelonians from sub-Saharan Africa—A review of current knowledge in tribute to Margaretha D. Hofmeyr. Vertebrate Zoology 72: 951-969.